Monday 31 August 2015

Security Alert! There's A 'Sudden Influx' of Boko Haram Members in Lagos, Southern States of Nigeria - DSS

There is a “sudden influx” of Boko Haram members in Lagos, while the sect’s cells are now present in Plateau, Gombe and Enugu states as well, the department of state services (DSS) revealed on Sunday.

Gunmen Kidnap Popular Columnist in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria

Ms Donu Kogbara

Popular columnist and broadcaster, Ms. Donu Kogbara, was kidnapped in front of her house in the Nkpogu area of Port Harcourt yesterday morning.

Although details of her abduction were sketchy, THISDAY gathered that armed men in police uniforms, who drove in a Honda CRV mid-sized sports utility vehicle, accosted and abducted Kogbara in front of her house.

Her mother was said to be in the house when Kogbara was kidnapped.
The state Police Public Relations Officer (PPRO), Ahmad Muhammad, a Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP), confirmed the incident and said investigations were underway to ensure her safe rescue.

He however expressed concern that the hoodlums wore police uniforms in their operation.
“We too are suspicious because we have gathered that the abductors were in police uniforms and used a private jeep. We (the police) do not operate like that. We are investigating the matter and hope to rescue her safely,” Muhammad said.

Kogbara is a highly regarded writer and broadcaster and has a weekly column in Vanguard Newspapers. She is also the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of African Access Limited, a public relations outfit.

She was also a member of the board of the Greater Port Harcourt City Development Authority from 2009 to 2015.
She first gained national prominence in the early 1990s when she wrote a weekly column for Vanguard Newspapers from the United Kingdom where she was based.

She was also one of the few Nigerians in the UK who appeared on several radio and television shows and wrote articles in British newspapers against the actions of the late environmental activist, Ken Saro Wiwa, after the death in May 1994 of four Ogoni chiefs, who were on the conservative side of a schism within the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) over the environmental degradation caused by Shell in Ogoniland.

One of the chiefs who was killed was her uncle, Chief E. Kobani.
Saro-Wiwa and eight others were later executed for the alleged murders of the “Ogoni Four” by the Sani Abacha junta in November 1995, sparking off global condemnation and Nigeria’s suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations for over three years.

Reacting to her abduction yesterday, the Governor of Rivers State, Nyesom Wike, condemned Kogbara’s kidnapping.
Wike, who spoke through his Special Adviser, Media and Publicity, Opunabo Nko-Tariah, expressed hope that she would be released unhurt.

He said the government was committed to ensuring the safety of all residents of the state.
“No responsible government will brook such acts of criminality. On this premise, the kidnapping is roundly condemned and we believe that by God's grace, she will come out alive.

“The government is working assiduously to ensure a crime-free state and that is why he (Wike) has stopped at nothing to provide the necessary tools including the donation of 64 security fitted vans to the police.
“By God's grace, she will be released in good health,” the statement said


ThisDay Newspaper

Saturday 29 August 2015

BREAKING! Nigerian Air Force Helicopter Crashes in Kaduna, Seven Dead

An Air Force helicopter has crashed at the site of the Old National Defence Academy in Kaduna, North West Nigeria.

Friday 28 August 2015

Gunmen Attack Boat, Kidnap Three in Bayelsa, South-South Nigeria

Unidentified gunmen suspected to be sea pirates on Wednesday, attacked two passenger boats and kidnapped three persons along the Ogbia to Brass waterways in Bayelsa State, South-South, Nigeria.

Thursday 27 August 2015

Nigeria Marks 500 Days Since Boko Haram Abducted Chibok Schoolgirls

The landmark comes amid a worsening security crisis in the northeast, where Islamists have stepped up deadly attacks since the inauguration of President Muhammadu Buhari, killing more than 1,000 people in three months.

Wednesday 26 August 2015

Boko Haram: Emergency Agency Evacuates 5,000 Displaced Persons from Dikwa LGA, Borno State

The National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) on Wednesday said it had evacuated 5,000 starved persons from liberated interland communities in Dikwa Local Government Area (LGA), Borno.

Male Suicide Bombers kill Selves, Soldier in Borno

Twin male suicide bombers suspected to be members of Boko Haram sect, Tuesday evening, detonated their explosives at a check point around the Gomari Airport Round- About killing a soldier including themselves.

15 Tough Security Interview Questions, And How To Respond To Them

More often than not, every organization strives to put square pegs in square holes as far as recruitment is concerned and to boost productivity. Even charity organizations are not very charitable; they seldom compromise when it comes to headhunting for the best candidate for a position. As we know, the interview process is part of the mechanism through which an organization shortlists, prunes down and inevitably hires suitable candidates to fill vacant positions. It follows that every organization will hire you because of the value you will be bringing to the table.

Ghanaian Family Traumatized As Graduate Son Joins ISIS

The decision by a 25-year- old graduate of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Nazir Nortei Alema, to join the dreaded terrorist organization, Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), has left his family in a state of distress.

Tuesday 25 August 2015

BREAKING NEWS! Female Suicide Bomber Kill 6, Injure 28 in Damaturu, Yobe State

A young female suicide bomber on Tuesday killed at least six people and injured up to 28 others outside the main bus station in the northeastern Nigerian town of Damaturu, witnesses and an official said.

Most Apple Devices Lack Proper Security For The Enterprise

Apple's Macs, iPhones and iPads are common in the modern workplace, but relatively few of these devices comply with standard security requirements, according to a new survey.

DSS Drags Ex-NSA To Court Over 'Illegal Possession of Firearms'

Sambo Dasuki
The Department of State Services (DSS) has taken Sambo Dasuki, immediate past national security adviser, to court for alleged possession of unlicensed firearms.

President Buhari Orders Probe Of Nigeria's Arms Purchase Since 2007

President Buhari
President Muhammadu Buhari has directed the National Security Adviser to convene an investigative committee on the procurement of hardware and munitions in the Armed Forces from 2007 till now, a statement by the Special Adviser to the President on Media and Publicity, Femi Adesina, has said.

Gunmen Kidnap 75-year-old Woman in Niger State, Demand N100m

A 75-year-old woman and mother of a onetime chairman of Rijau local government area in Niger State, Hajiya Umma Rijau, has been kidnapped by some unknown gunmen who are demanding N100 million ransom.

Monday 24 August 2015

Europe Is Facing New Uncertainty in Fight Against Terrorism

PARIS — Two days after a young Moroccan man was thwarted from an apparent plan to cause carnage on a Paris-bound express train, European officials confronted the deepening quandary of what additional steps they could take in the face of such attacks on soft targets, short of paralyzing public spaces or even more intrusive surveillance.

Nigerian Air Force Reconnaissance Aircraft Intercepts, Destroys Boko Haram Transport Trucks

Two trailers suspected to be carrying logistics support to members of the Boko Haram Terrorist sect have been intercepted and destroyed by the Nigerian Air Force Agusta helicopter on armed reconnaissance mission around the Nigeria-Cameroon border.

Sunday 23 August 2015

Boko Haram Insurgency: Nigeria Not Safe Yet – US, UK and Canada Warn It's Citizens

Notwithstanding the weakening of Boko Haram’s capacity to carry out large-scale attacks against civilians and soldiers by Nigerian troops in the North-East, the United States, United Kingdom and Canada still warn their citizens against travelling to Nigeria.

Nigeria’s Chief of Army Staff Escapes Boko Haram Ambush, Soldier Killed

Nigeria's Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant General Tukur Buratai narrowly escaped a Boko Haram ambush yesterday on the Maiduguri-Dikwa road, Borno State, but his advance team did and lost one soldier while five Boko Haram terrorists were killed by the advance team in the gun fire exchange. Four terrorists surrendered.

Saturday 22 August 2015

Cybersecurity Lesson: Deleted Online Information Never Actually Goes Away - Experts

NEW YORK (AP) — The Ashley Madison hack is a big reminder to all Web users: If you submit private data online, chances are it will never fully be deleted.

Nigerian Military Liberates Gudumbali  Town, Borno State, Lose 2 Soldiers 

Sequel to its continued offensive against the Boko Haram terrorists, the Nigerian Military has liberated Gudumbali town in Guzamala local government area of Borno. According to a statement released on Friday in Abuja by the Acting Director, Army Public Relations, Col. Sani Usman, the attack on the town was carried out by troops of 7 Brigade.

Hospitals Free To Treat All Accident, Gunshot Victims Without Police Clearance - IG of Police

IGP Solomon Arase
The Inspector General of Police, Solomon Arase, has urged doctors to treat accident and gunshot victims without seeking police clearance.

Friday 21 August 2015

South Sudanese Journalist Murdered After President Salva Kiir Threatens Reporters

JUBA, South Sudan –  A South Sudanese journalist was shot dead by unknown gunmen in the outskirts of the country's capital, his father said Thursday, in an attack that came days after President Salva Kiir was reported to have threatened to kill reporters "working against the country."

Security Alert! 22 Boko Haram Members Discovered Amongst IDPs Deported From Cameroon

The National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) has discovered 22 Boko Haram members among Nigerians deported from Cameroon who were put at the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camp in Mubi, Adamawa.

Nigerian Army Screens, Recalls Soldiers Dismissed For Cowardice

Many soldiers who were earlier dismissed from the Nigerian Army for refusing to fight have been recalled and are currently being screened at the Jaji military cantonment in Kaduna State, our correspondent gathered yesterday.

Thursday 20 August 2015

Nigeria Has Highest Number of IDPs Worldwide - United Nations

The United Nations Country Representative, Mr. Dauda Toure, has said Nigeria has the highest number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world numbering 1.5 million.

Two Top Boko Haram Commanders Arrested in Gaidam, Yobe State

Nigerian troops have arrested two top Commanders of Boko Haram in Gaidam town of Gaidam local government area of Yobe state, Northeast Nigeria.

Wednesday 19 August 2015

President Buhari Orders Probe On How A Wanted ISIS Leader Got Nigerian Visa

Ahmad al-Assir
The Nigerian government has ordered a full investigation into how a wanted terrorist was granted Nigerian Visa in Lebanon to visit the country.

How Do You Spot The Next Terrorist?

You spend your days staring at endless crowds of people, peering into their eyes (figuratively) and tapping into their smartphones (literally), trying to guess which one of them will be the next mass murderer.

Tuesday 18 August 2015

Terrorism: Bomb Blast Rocks Thailand's Capital - Bangkok, 19 Killed, More Than 120 Injured

A bomb has exploded close to a shrine in the centre of Thailand's capital, Bangkok, killing at least 19 people and injuring more than 120.

Cultism: 16 Dead In Kwara State Polytechnic Students’ Cult Clash

No fewer than 16 people were at the weekend, killed in bloody clashes between suspected cult members of the Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.

Boko Haram Militants Kill 7 in Awonori Village, Near Damasak, Borno State

Boko Haram militants on Monday raided a village in restive northeast Nigeria's Borno state near the border with Niger, killing seven people, community leaders told AFP.

Sunday 16 August 2015

Terrorism: Nigerian Government Snoops Social Media Accounts of Nigerians

A Punch Newspaper investigation has revealed that the Nigerian government snoops on the social media accounts of Nigerians who are suspected of having links with various terrorist groups, including Boko Haram and the Islamic State of Syria and Iraq, ISIS.

Updated: Boko Haram: Abubakar Shekau Hale And Hearty, Calls The Shots - Salkida

Ahmad Salkida, the Nigerian journalist known to have access to top commanders of the Boko Haram sect, says Abubakar Shekau is alive and still presiding over the affairs of the notorious group. Salkida dismissed the view of President Idriss Deby of Chad, who said Shekau had been replaced by one Mahamat Daoud. 

At a press conference to mark Chad’s 55th independence anniversary, Deby had said: “There is someone apparently called Mahamat Daoud who is said to have replaced Abubakar Shekau and wants to negotiate with the Nigerian government.” But Salkida accused the Chadian president of lying, saying that was how he misled former president, Goodluck Jonathan into entering a botched peace deal with the sect. “Idris Deby is wrong now as before when he deceived former president Jonathan in phantom negotiation. Shekau is alive and leads ISWAP or BH,” he wrote on Twitter. Idris Deby is wrong now as before when he deceived Fmr President Jonathan in phantom negotiation. Shekau is alive and leads ISWAP or BH.

The fallout of the so-called deal with Boko Haram was one of the low points of the immediate-past administration. However, Shekau’s absence in the group’s video in recent times has fueled speculations of his death even before Deby’s comment. He was last heard of in March when he announced Boko Haram’s alliance to the Islamic State (IS). Until Deby spoke last week, the authorities had been silent about Shekau apparently because the issue of his death had been an embarrassment. 

The unrepentant Boko Haram leader has refuted the reports of his demise on three separate occasions that security forces claimed to have silenced him. In a video he released in October, Shekau taunted the military saying he has “one soul”. “Here I am, alive. I will only die the day Allah takes my breath. I am running our… Islamic caliphate and administering sharia punishments,” he had said. “Nothing will kill me until my days are over… I’m still alive. Some people asked you if Shekau has two souls. No, I have one soul, by Allah. It is propaganda that is prevalent. I have one soul. I’m an Islamic student. I’m the Islamic student whose seminary you burnt… I’m not dead.” Shekau took control of the group after its founder, Muhammad Yusuf, died in police custody in July 2009. Under his leadership the group became more radical and carried out more killings.

To confirmm Salkida's assertion, 

Abubakar Shekau, leader of the Boko Haram sect broke his five months silence, refuting the report of his death in an audio posted on social media on Sunday.

Describing President Idris Deby of Chad as a “hypocrite”, the notorious militant said infidels were behind reports of his death.

“It is indeed all over the global media of infidels that I am dead or that I am sick,” he said.

“It should be understood that this is false. This is indeed a lie. If it were true, my voice wouldn’t have been heard, now that I am speaking.

“I have not disappeared. I am still alive and I will not die until my time appointed by Allah is up.”

Last week during a press conference to mark Chad’s 55th independence anniversary, Deby said Shekau had been replaced with one Mahamat Daoud.

“There is someone apparently called Mahamat Daoud who is said to have replaced Abubakar Shekau and wants to negotiate with the Nigerian government,” he had said.

Culled from:

Female Suicide Bomber Kills 3 in Borno Attack

Maiduguri, (Reuters) – A suicide bomber detonated an explosive device strapped on her body near a market in the northeastern Nigerian State of Borno, killing at least three people, police and civilian vigilante sources said on Saturday.

Saturday 15 August 2015

Boko Haram: Nigerian Air Force Commences Bombardment of Sambisa Forest

Barely Forty-eight hours after President Muhammadu Buhari directed the Military High Command to ensure the end of Boko Haram in the next three months, Nigerian Airforce fighter jets recently deployed to the North East, have commenced air bombardments of Sambisa forest to decapitate the remaining terrorist’s camps and bunkers of the group.

Insecurity in Nigeria: Cult Groups, Fulani Herdsmen Kill 761 In Seven Months 

Not less than 761 persons have lost their lives to cultism and clashes involving Fulani herdsmen in Nigeria between January and July this year, Saturday PUNCH has learnt.

Friday 14 August 2015

12 Telltale Signs, Tips To Avoid Been Victim of Employment Scam

What is an employment or job scam (fraud)?
A job scam (419 in the Nigerian parlance) happens when a swindler impersonates or fronts as a genuine employer with the promise of an inviting career opportunity which often entails that the prospective job-seeker pays money in advance. Please for the purpose of this essay, I shall be using employment and job, fraud and scam interchangeably.

Job or employment scam, a global problem:
According to, ‘’poor economy and new tricks drive up job scams by 500%’’ in the United States of America. Statistics from the City of London Police’s National Fraud Intelligence Bureau (NFIB) - reckons that the most defrauded job-seekers were between the ages of 18 and 25 and that on average, victims lose approximately £4,000 to job scams. Cases abound of job seekers been robbed, kidnapped or maimed because they failed to do a due diligence on prospective recruiting companies.

Sources and variants of employment scam:

There are many sources, variants or formats of employment scam: it could be in the form of an advert in a newspaper, website or social media platforms such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Craiglist, OLX, job portals or even by referral from someone who claims to be your acquaintance or old school mate. Sometimes they claim to be recruiting for government establishments: Immigration Service, Customs, and security agencies amongst others. Masterminds of employment scams keep reinventing their templates/formats for varied audiences (‘magas’) as the victims are called in the 419 parlance. While the target audience for typical ‘yahoo yahoo’ or internet dating/romance scams are unleashed on vulnerable and perennially love-seeking Caucasian women, fraudulent employment and multi-level marketing Ponzi schemes seem to be the executable format for desperate, vulnerable unemployed Africans. Knowing that many Africans yearn to travel overseas for greener pastures, fake visa (lottery) racket is also thrown into the mix.
 The unemployment time-bomb in Nigeria:
Aside from the Boko Haram miasma, the unparalleled insecurity stifling and pervading the length and breadth of Nigeria, another time-bomb with potential national security ramifications is unprecedented level of youth UNEMPLOYMENT. There’s no point citing the extremely specious, redacted government unemployment guesstimate, statistics in Nigeria. But to give us an idea, Nigeria’s National Bureau of Statistics, NBS, says 504,596 Nigerians joined the labour market in the first quarter of 2015. Nigerian universities and higher institutions churn out hundreds of thousands of graduates annually and there are few new job openings, the supply is greater than the demand. The few jobs out there, especially those in government establishments are exclusive preserves of well-connected, sometimes quota candidates who may be less qualified. Devoid of some cushioning effects (food stamps, unemployment, and housing allowance/benefit) to the hapless, the situation in Nigeria can be likened to that of a jungle where only the strongest and fittest survives. The multiplier-effect of a scenario of abject poverty in the midst of plenty is increased desperation by youths or the unemployed to catch up with the Joneses and a growing employment scam industry which preys on the vulnerability of mostly naïve, distressed unemployed folks.

The intersection of unemployment, crime and security:
While one does not in any way exonerate or extenuate folks who perpetuate employment fraud or crimes generally; there seem to be a relationship between unemployment, frustration, despair and crime. We are all aware of the age-long, trite sayings that: a hungry man is an angry man and that an idle mind is a devil’s workshop. To further buttress how youth unemployment and crime (kidnapping) are intertwined, a scenario suffices: while recounting his horrible experience in the hands of kidnappers, a legal luminary - Chief Mike Ozekhome was quoted as saying that his kidnappers, ‘’spoke Queen’s English, discussed and analyzed politics knowledgeably’’.  It follows that youth unemployment directly or indirectly has a butterfly-effect on fraudulent employment schemes, incessant armed robbery, kidnapping for ransom, crude oil bunkering and pipeline vandalization, prostitution, and is feasibly one of the factors fueling terrorism, insurgency and instability in Nigeria.

Real life experience of employment fraud:
This essay was prompted by a recent experience of a friend of mine who nearly fell for a ‘Shell’ Petroleum Development Company (SPDC Nigeria) employment scam. One thing led to the other and my friend was sent an ‘’acceptance form’’ for a job in SPDC Nigeria. He showed me the so-called acceptance letter which I perused with my trained eyes. Having gathered earlier that Shell was on the verge of retrenching 6,500 staff and coupled with the aforementioned red flags, I doubted the plausibility of the said job offer emanating from Shell and promptly told him I was 95 percent sure it was a job scam and asked him to be on his guard. The email address reads: NIGERIANSHELL.SHELL.COM (all uppercase letters) which I know the genuine Shell will not make that mistake. The Shell logo looked very much like copy and paste, the grammar was not convincing and fraught with exclamation marks (!). They pegged his monthly salary in the neighborhood of N500, 000.00 (about $2,200), not bad for a low skilled job. Dude did not take my warning seriously. Him and his wife were already praying, fasting about the miracle job offer and writing long list of things they needed to buy once he starts work with Shell. Somehow he had spent nearly N10, 000 in the process: phone calls, transportation, scanning and emailing dozens of documents requested of him. He felt it was genuine since someone who claimed to know him referred him to the opportunity and besides they didn’t demand for huge sum of money ab initio and that the N10k he spent was negligible considering the fantastic salary package. I told him scammers don’t always put hefty monetary demands from the onset and asked him to string along but must avoid ‘investing’ additional money for whatever guise. After sending back the ‘’acceptance letter’’, they told him he needs to get a letter from the King of Bonny Kingdom which they will help him fix. It was at this stage they dropped the bomb shell; he needs to pay N150, 000 to enable them procure the recommendation letter from the King of Bonny! That was when it dawned on him the whole thing was a scam.

Yours sincerely also had a similar experience with job scam in the past. I got a LinkedIn invitation from someone claiming to be Nigeria’s erstwhile Minister of Petroleum – Mrs. Diezani Alison Madueke. I checked out her profile which ticked the right buttons – more than 500 contacts, schools attended, qualifications with dates amongst other were meticulously enumerated and her picture was there. I was curious but nonetheless I accepted the invitation. ‘She’ then sent me a message asking if I am interested or knows someone who is interested in enlisting into the Immigration Service, that she’s got a slot there. I promptly knew it was a scam and didn’t respond to her message.

Signs, tips to guard against been victim of employment fraud:

Sequel to the foregoing and to prevent folks from learning the hard way, I decided to aggregate telltale signs or red flags to fish out phony, fraudulent employment offers and scam messages:

1.     Many a times you can’t remember and didn’t formally apply for the job but they contacted you saying they found your CV online. Don’t ever give out your personal information, bank details over the phone to a stranger and be careful who, where or what employment agency you send your CV, personal information to. Note that scammers troll online recruitment platforms looking for victims to prey on. 
2.     The employment process happens pretty fast; you get an instant offer/acceptance letter within hours, days. Phishing scams and identity theft are for real. Research or Google a prospective company to ascertain whether they are actually recruiting and they are who they claim to be.
3.     The golden rule to detect a job scam is that it often entails you paying a fee in advance in the guise of say a ‘’processing fee’’, ‘’test fee’’, ‘’placement fee’’, ‘’background checks’’ etc. or for training. They also create some sense of urgency by giving you a deadline to pay the money.
4.     A mouth-watering salary package especially for an unskilled role may also be a red flag that a job offer may after all be fraudulent. 
5.     Be very cautious of job adverts with vague job descriptions that claim little, no experience or qualifications are needed.
6.     Take note of the grammar, punctuation, spelling mistakes or typos on the message (email, SMS) sent to you. More often than not, scam employment emails or messages are written in UPPER CASE letters, spiced with lots of exclamation (!) marks and may sound emotional (unprofessional). Remember some of the perpetrators of fraudulent employment schemes are probably illiterates and unemployed themselves.
7.     The email addresses are probably free web mailers such as Yahoo mail, Google mail, Hotmail amongst others. That is not to say that genuine companies that don’t want undue pressure or interference cannot use free email platforms to solicit for applications. Even if it looks like a genuine website, bear in mind that websites and email address can be cloned. An example is the one I cited above: NIGERIANSHELL@SHELL.COM or say SHELL@GMAIL.COM, VACANCY@SHELLNG.COM. A company cannot claim to be Halliburton and ask you to send your CV to If it is truly Halliburton, then their email address will match their website e.g.
8.     Genuine recruiters will ask that you email or forward your CV to them. Be on your guard if you are asked to send your personal details (name, address, qualifications etc.) via SMS.
9.     Have you ever gotten a call from somebody you don’t know claiming to have served with you in the same Platoon during your NYSC days? They go ahead telling you they now work with Slumberger, NNPC, Shell etc. and promise to help you secure employment in their place of work. This seems to be a new template for scammers. A lot of people have fallen for this scam. The caller may have gotten your phone number from the NYSC Corper’s magazine of the state you served.
10.          Fraudulent employment syndicates sometimes pretend to be reputable international humanitarian NGOs. Note the difference between this two: USAAID and USAID. 
11.          Please beware of those get-rich-quick how-I-make-$5,000-a-day-working-from-home, multi-level marketing hogwash or pyramid schemes which are fashioned after the infamous ‘’Ponzi scheme’’ - pays returns from one’s money or from subsequent investors than from ACTUAL profit. Staffcentrix, a firm that focuses in screening online job offers, asserts that less than 2% of work-at-home career opportunities advertised on the Internet are genuine. If the opportunity entails making or selling a product or service, ascertain if there is truly a market for it and speak to people in the know about it. 
12.          You may also find this list of 28 listed fake/scam employment firms and Cruise ship job scams useful.

Written By: 

© Don OKEREKE, a tech-savvy security thought leader, analyst, researcher, content creator, UX writer, military veteran.

Follow me on Twitter: @DonOkereke